Are you trying to become a Full Stack Developer? Are you wondering whether it would be a good choice to learn Node.js, Python or Golang? Then you have arrived at the right place. In order to become a Golang developer, you would need to adhere to a proper method. You would need to systematically learn the conceptual aspects if you wish to flourish and develop projects.
So, let us take a look at how you should approach your learning journey.
1. Be Aware of the Fundamental Concepts
- If you wish to gain proficiency in Go programming language, you have to know the basics, i.e, the syntax and the language. Thus, you have to know the keywords, identifiers, filenames.
- In Golang, you have to be particularly careful about types that are compiler inferred or declared by the coder explicitly.
- Following this, you need to learn operators, functions and constants. Once you have grasped the concepts, you can then move on to pointers, structures, maps, arrays, interface, error handling, etc.
- Since Go has a minimum number of keywords, it helps in reducing the complexity of the codes and typing. Thus, it is the perfect language for beginners.
- You will get to learn about concurrency, and the fact there is no operator or function overloading. Furthermore, there are no dynamic libraries, classes, type inheritance, assertions, etc. So, you can imagine how easy it is to learn the language.
2. Learn Go Libraries and Relevant Tools
- If you wish to master the Go language quickly, you have to adopt the right steps. Thus, you need to know about the frameworks, databases, add-on libraries which makes it easier for developers to code.
- If you have to learn about frameworks, it is imperative that you start with Echo. And if you have time in your hand, then you can move on to Beego, Revel, Gin.
- You should have an idea of libraries like CLI, GORM, Gen. This would make your coding experience better as you don’t have to start from scratch.
- When it comes to databases, you can focus on relational databases like MySQL.
3. Learn to Deal with Program Errors Seamlessly
There is an interesting workaround when it comes to error handling in Golang. There are no traditional try/catch methods, nor do the built-in errors consist of stack traces. The way Golang handles errors is it returns it as a final value when you call the function that is destined to fail. You will get no exceptions thrown at you if anything goes haywire. So, it is upto the developer to decide what can be done with the error.
4. Get to Know About Testing
- If you are a Golang developer, you will have to be building products for clients. So, you have to test the products for reliability and usability before it’s distributed. You will have to be familiar with:
- Integration Testing
- E2E Testing
- Behavior Testing
- Unit Testing
- The most crucial step for novice Go developers is unit testing. The Go standard library includes a testing package by default. Go, however, tends to lean on the side of minimalism, thus you might require other tools for testing that are more thorough, such as the well-known frameworks GoCheck and Ginkgo. Ginkgo may also be used for integration and behavior testing.
- While unit tests are concerned with verification of smallest parts of a particular program, integration tests make sure that each component of an application works perfectly in conjunction with each other. On the other hand, functional tests are aimed at verifying whether the software acts as per the requirements or not.
5. Learn about Code Reuse with Packages
- A Go package is made up of several Go files that are all located in the same directory, allowing the built-in code to be reused in other Go programs. In addition to this, you should also know about interface and composition for efficient code reusability.
- Use composition rather than inheritance, and accept interfaces rather than concrete types. Use specific interfaces that describe your needs rather than generic ones. Or, use empty interfaces with unboxing if there is no other option and you wish to be as generic as possible.
- Next, you should be aware of the ‘fmt’ package that helps in keeping the name of the function succinct. Furthermore, it makes it easier for you to find reusable codes, and acts as a positive catalyst by taking less compilation time. This is because only recompilation of a small segment of the program is required.
6. Comprehend the Patterns in Go
- Employers typically demand proof that you are familiar with Go’s design patterns. A recurring, all-encompassing solution to a frequent issue in software design is known as a design pattern. Various design patterns aid in structuring or dividing business logic to facilitate certain activities.
- The design patterns can be categorized as:
- Creational design patterns like singleton, factory, builder; and behavioral design patterns like command, iterator and observer are crucial. The best way to get acquainted with the design patterns is to start coding and checking out sample programs.
7. Use Channels and Goroutines for Designing Concurrent Software
- The language of Golang supports concurrency and parallelism. When you start learning, you will understand the difference between concurrent and sequential execution. You will learn how Gorountines help in dealing with network latency and make a program run faster.
- Over time, you will realize the significance of Goroutines. You will comprehend how it enables program tasks or projects to run concurrently, with the help of timers. Following this, you will get to see Channels, which helps in managing the communication between different Goroutines.
- Channels are typed, which means you can assign them to variables, take advantage of them as function return values, etc. The basic principle of how the whole thing works is that a goroutine will communicate values to another goroutine inside of a channel. You will have to understand that in order to start working on projects.
8. Learn to Create Command Line Utility
- If you are to develop software, then you need to know the fundamental part that is command line apps. Soon, you will be familiar with the text I/O environment known as terminal, and you will get to know about the command-line interpreter called shell.
- You will learn how to create subcommands and parse arguments. Soon enough, you will delve into interacting with underlying operating systems using command-line utilities.
- Through your learning, you will learn to create scripts that can run automatically, interact with OS files, and perform maintenance tasks as well.
9. Learn about JSON REST APIs
- In this section, you will get to know all about encoding and decoding of JSON REST APIs provided by Go. You will gain mastery over Golang data types, using struct tags and fetching JSON using HTTP.
- Most importantly, you will learn about the conversion of JSON raw data into Go types. Following which, you get an insight into marshaling and unmarshaling of JSON data.
- Next, you will learn how to decode JSON to Maps, ignoring empty fields and marshaling slices and maps. You will also know when to use structs and Maps. If there is an uncertain value or key nature, then it is better to refrain from using structs.
- After that, you will know how to design the endpoints of REST within your project. This will handle various HTTP requests like POST, PUT, GET and DELETE.
Last but not least, you have to practice. But you should not aim solely for the sake of attending a job interview, but to expand your knowledge. You should not hesitate to take on intricate questions. If you have an issue, look for solutions on GitHub or Stack Overflow. If you cannot understand a concept, check for tutorials on YouTube or online blog posts. Make sure that you comprehend the solution and understand the underlying logic. If you can, you should start answering questions on forums and help others with coding.
These are the steps you need to follow in order to become a Golang developer. If you find that learning by yourself is daunting or complex, you must not hesitate in applying for an online course. Or, you can hire a tutor who will guide you from scratch. All the best with the learning process!