Definition Of Robotics
Robotics deals with the design, operation, manufacture, study and application of automations or robots . It is a combination of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering, biomedical engineering and computer science , as well as other engineering methods.
Robotics represents the summit in the trajectory of technological development , that is, the design of tools. Its work is to build a tool that can perform other tasks that are currently performed by the human being, more efficiently and quickly. Robotics will be very helpful in conditions and environments that the human being would be inaccessible.
The robot is the most intelligent tool that is possible. However, the development of such tools, from many years of the beginnings of automation,also translates into unemployment and the replacement of human labour with automatons.
This also increases the fear of losing control over these types of tools, or being replaced, dominated or violated by them, warnings that appear even in texts.
Similarly, the word robotics , should be considered as discipline, given by Isaac Asimov .He is a science fiction writer who was one of the most famous cult writer of the robotized imaginary future.
However, the history of robotics can be found much earlier, in the desire of the humans to build beings in his image and likeness, which could relieve him from hectic works.
For the first time,the robots are appeared between 1950 and 1960 . They were involved in simple, mechanical and automated industrial works. The first robot is dedicated to space exploration. It was put on the Martian surface by the space project of the former Soviet Union, contact with him was lost only a few seconds after landing.
The first humanoid and biped robot, ASIMO announced in Japan in 2011, and demonstrations of its ability to interact with humans were made.
Advances in artificial intelligence allowed Sophia to appear in 2015, a ginoid robot with a realistic human appearance, designed to adapt to the social environment with humans and to be able to remember, recognize faces and simulate facial expressions.
Features Of Robotics
Robotics is the science that studies robots, and concentrates the different disciplines necessary to design and manufacture them .It combines the knowledge of different types of engineering, electronics , physics , computer science , mechanics, animatronics and other similar areas of knowledge.
The mission is to develop the different aspects of a functional robot: its autonomy and its own intelligence, its resistance and operability, its programming and control mechanisms.
In addition, it is a relatively young discipline, whose applications in real life have a huge impact . At the same time it is a source of distrust and fear on the part of society .
Types of robots
Robots are generally classified based on the different generations:
First generation : Multifunctional robots with a simple control system, manual, fixed sequence or variable sequence.
Second generation:Learning robots, which repeat sequences of movements previously executed by human operators.
Third generation : Sensorized control robots, controlled by some type of program (software) that sends the signals to the robotic body to carry out certain mechanical tasks.
Another form of classification responds to the structure of theft, being able to talk about robots:
Polyarticulated : They have many moving parts.
Phones : They are rolling or automotive.
Zoomorphic : Imitate the shape of some animals.
Anthropomorphized : Imitate the shape of the human being.
Benefits Of Robotics
- Increased productivity , in factories and other mechanical spaces, since robots can do tasks more times, faster and more efficiently than human workers .
- Access to hostile environments , such as outer space, seabed, spaces devoid of air , etc., in which a human worker could not perform or would do so at very high costs and risks .
- Automation of unwanted tasks , generally those related to maintenance or cleaning, which are mechanical and repetitive.
- They are helpful in medicine , allowing remote operations, controlled by specialized medical software , with a very high precision index, through arms and other robotic tools.
If robotics is the science that designs, plans and conceives of robots, robotic engineering is, instead, its formal incorporation into the domains of engineering.
They are responsible for the design of automated tools that facilitate human life, or that take steps towards the eventual construction of a true robot, such as those predicted by science fiction. It is a high-demand university career in today’s post-industrial world.
Three important Laws Of Robots
In his fictional work Isaac Asimov conceived the Three Laws of Robotics , which are a fundamental code of operability incorporated into the nucleus of the positronic brains of the robots in his stories.
The three laws were, in order of hierarchy and importance:
First Law : No robot will harm a human being or allow inaction for a human being to suffer damage.
Second Law : Each and Every robot must obey orders issued by a human being, except in cases where such orders contradict the First Law.
Third Law : Every robot must ensure the preservation of its existence, except in cases where it contradicts the provisions of the First and / or Second Law.
Asimov, in his novel Robots and Empire (1985), adds a “Zero Law” which is absolute priority over the other three, which means “A robot will not harm humanity or allow inaction for humanity to suffer damage.”Asimov’s stories were about robotic dilemmas when it came to complying with these three laws. He explained the exceptions, contradictions and problems arising from his code of conduct .