Components of computer system
A Components of computer system is composed of two basic aspects : hardware, which means “physical support” and software, which refers to the “program/coding”.
Physical media are electronic elements that are connected to provide data. That data is processed to the instructions provided by the programs. Let us look into the computer components list.
The hardware is like a box in which a series of devices that process input and output information are connected.
The software is the set of instructions to execute that input and output information. Without the software instructions, the computer would be a useless box, just like the human body would be without a brain.
Internal parts of computer and their functions
Motherboard : It is the main board of any computer system to which all other devices are connected. Both directly (such as interconnected electrical circuits) and indirectly (through USB portsor other connectors). It has a basic software called BIOS that allows you to perform and synchronize its basic functions.
Processor : It is the Central Processing Unit ( CPU ), that is, the brain of the computer that controls everything that runs the computer and is responsible for performing calculations and understanding data.
There are several types of CPUs that differ, among other things, by their speed to process information. That speed is measured in a frequency unit called Hertz. The faster the speed reached by the processor, the faster the performance of the computer. Currently, the two main CPU brands are AMD and Intel, Printed circuit board manufacturer.
RAM Internal Memory : It is the memory that stores information, temporarily and quickly, for the computer to use at the moment. Its storage capacity is measured in units called gigabytes (GB).
The greater the amount of RAM, the faster the computer can work, for example, to open and use several programs at once. The content of the RAM memory is deleted as soon as the computer is turned off because it does not store data ( files, videos, programs, etc.).
But instead retains information about the actions that are being performed with that data. It does not store the file or the program itself, but the information to execute it.
ROM Internal Memory : It is the memory that stores information permanently and is called “read-only”. That is, the user cannot alter the content once that information was stored, he can only install or uninstall it.
The ROM memory stores everything related to instructions or what is also called BIOS (basic system or boot program). That includes instructions on how to start the machine or how programs work, among others.
Video Card: Also known as “graphics card” is an internal hardware device that connects to the motherboard and allows the computer to display images on the monitor. It requires the installation of software to tell the computer how to use that video card.
The user can modify the settings of the image projected on the monitor, for example, the quality (higher or lower definition), the size, among others.
Soundboard : It is an internal hardware device that connects to the motherboard and is classified according to the channels used. For example, stereo, quadraphonic (surround sound), MIDI (professional use connector), among others.
The main function of the board is to allow the computer to play sounds (music, voice or any audio signal) through speakers or headphones. It also receives user sounds through the connection of a microphone.
Secondary Storage Device : It is the memory that stores data permanently (or until the user deletes them), such as documents, forms, images, videos, audios, file backups, among others.
They are stored data that the computer does not need immediately or quickly for its operation, but it is the user who uses them directly. There are two types of secondary storage devices: internal (the hard drive) and external (external hard drive, memory card, flash drive, CD ROM, etc.).
External hardware components
They are pieces that receive raw data and that the computer can process through the corresponding software. They are divided into two categories: manual input devices, which must be operated by the user (keyboard, mouse, touch screen, microphone, etc.).
Automatic input devices, which trigger the entry of information on their own, independently of the user (magnetic stripe reader, magnetic ink character recognition, PIN and chip reader, barcode reader, etc.).
They are pieces that send out the data processed by the computer. There are two types.
Temporary output :
Such as the monitor, which constantly updates the output image on the screen .
Permanent output :
Such as the printer, which reproduces information on paper that persists as a hard copy.
Peripheral Devices: They are the majority of the input and output devices that are considered “non-essential” external hardware components. Because the computer can operate without them.
For example, speakers, webcam, keyboard, microphone, printer, scanner, mouse, joystick, among others.
Types of computer software with examples
System Software: These are the programs preinstalled on the computer, which allow to support other programs installed by the user. Some examples are operating systems (Windows, Mac OS, Linux, BIOS, etc.),antivirus programs , graphic drivers, encryption software, among others.
Application software: These are programs that do not have to do with the operation of the equipment, but are installed by the user to perform certain functions.
For example, spreadsheets (Excel), word processing (Word), programs database (Access), graphics programs (Illustrator), browsers of Internet (Chrome), among others.
Types of computers and their uses
Personal Computer:Its name comes from the English personal computer (PC), also called “desktop.” It is commonly used in the home or office.
Laptop: It is a machine smaller and lighter than the PC, designed to transport it in a simple way. It is for personal or work use.
Netbook : It is similar to the notebook , only it has smaller size and weight, so its screen and keyboard are much smaller. It is designed to transport and use anywhere.
Central Unit: It can also be called as Mainframe, it is a very large, powerful and expensive computer, for business or industrial use that allows large-scale data processing.
Database is a set of information belonging to the same context , systematically arranged for subsequent retrieval, analysis and / or transmission. There are currently many forms of databases, ranging from a library to the vast user data sets of a telecommunications company.
The management of the databases is carried out through management systems called DBMS for its acronym in English. Database Management Systems currently digital and automated.Which allow orderly storage and rapid recovery of information. In this, technology is the very principle of computer science .
Database types and its uses
Static Databases : Typical of business intelligence and other areas of historical analysis, they are read-only databases.From which information can be extracted, but not modify the existing one.
Dynamic Databases : Apart from the basic operations of consultation, these databases handle processes of updating, reorganization, addition and deletion of information.